The BugLady got help on the ID (thanks, Gretchen, and for the two BIG books) and found out that these cool little guys are the larvae of the Scarlet Oak Sawfly (Caliroa quercuscoccinae; Quercus is the genus of oaks). The roseslug only has one generation per season, so we didn’t worry too much about this sawfly.  The early-season leaf damage was quickly covered over by new leaves as the season progressed.  We would occasionally see the Curled Rose Sawfly (Allantus cinctus), but with only two early-season generations, this sawfly would come and go so quickly it seldom caused appreciable damage. This is not a caterpillar but is the larva of a sawfly. Photo by Richard Orr. Larvae are yellow-green caterpillar-like insects with an orange head. Control and prevention of further damage depend on proper identification of the true culprit.  Only the bristly roseslug is worthy of control measures because it continues to produce damage throughout the season. The Bristly rose slug will typically feed on the underside of the rose leaves, leaving the translucent lacy layer of the leaf tissue that some rosarians refer to as skeletonizing of the foliage. You must look closely to spot the pale green semi-transparent sawfly larvae. They have a tapered shape and slimy appearance that gives them a vague resemblance to a true slug. Three species are rose pests: the rose slug (Endelomyia aethiops), the bristly rose slug (Cladius difformis), and the curled rose sawfly (Aallantus cinctus). There are 3 species of Rose Slug that may be your culprit: the European rose slug (Endelomyia aethiops), the Bristly rose slug (Cladius difformis), and the Curled rose sawfly (Allantus cinctus). It is shiny black to pale green; by maturity it develops the many bristlelike hairs on its body whence its name derives. Unlike real slugs, they do have bodily segments and they do have a few pairs of legs on their thoracic segments. Bristly roseslug (Cladius difformis). Roses in Ohio may be infested by this sawfly as well as two other non-native species: the European roseslug sawfly (Endelomyia aethiops); and the curled roseslug sawfly (Allantus cinctus). European roseslug sawfly (Endelomyia aethiops) produces only one generation per year, but another related species, the bristly roseslug sawfly (Cladius difformis), can produce two to six generations per year. The (probably) Bristly Rose Slug (Cladius difformis) is found on rose, raspberry, strawberry and some other members of the rose family. Figure 3: Damage on Rose Plant Caused by Rose Slug. Heavy leaf damage from the non-native bristly roseslug sawfly (Cladius difformis) is becoming very apparent on its namesake host in southwest Ohio. The rose slug is velvety green or yellow-green, while the bristly rose slug is light green with, unsurprisingly, rather stout bristles. The grazing activities of the slug-like larvae of the rose slugworm sawfly can cause leaves on roses to turn brown and dry up. Sawfly larvae have jointed legs and a bead-like head. Mature larvae look like caterpillars, but they are not. Both are the larvae of plant feeding wasps known as sawflies . Curled rose sawfly (Allantus cinctus). Appearance: Roseslug sawfly adults are fly-like insects with two pairs of wings. Roseslug (Endelomyia aethiops). bring heavenly fragrance and delicate flowers to home gardens in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 2 … Close examination of this small (½ inch) larva will reveal very fine, hairlike spines in clusters. This species, along with the bristly roseslug, Cladius difformis, belong to the family Tenthredinidae. The larva of a Bristly Rose Slug Sawfly in Howard Co., Maryland (10/20/2013). The BugLady noticed something odd about the leaf of a nearby white oak in late summer, so she carefully turned it over and discovered a small herd of shiny, yellow bowling-pin-shaped larvae devouring the bottom layer of the leaf—except for the veins. They go through several generations a year. The common roseslug, Endelomyia aethiops, can be found skeletonizing rose leaves in late spring and early summer. Native to the Palaearctic, probably accidentally introduced in the Nearctic. Back. Last week’s weevil episode, BugFan Mike sent this, Chronological Index to the Field Station Bulletin, http://www.helium.com/items/561194-how-to-skeletonize-a-leaf, http://www.helium.com/items/623887-how-to-skeletonize-a-leaf, http://www.phantomleaves.com/page/page/4079421.htm%20. Sawflies and moths make up a large percentage of skeletonizers (Japanese beetles and some species of leaf beetles are also guilty). The other is the Bristly rose slug, which is covered with small hair-like bristles. This insect has been skeletonizing rose leaves in the Kansas City area. It’s much harder finding general information about the skeletonizer lifestyle. The eggs take a few weeks to hatch (although the eggs are inserted into the leaf’s top side, the larvae exit through the bottom leaf surface), and the artwork of the larvae usually isn’t immediately noticeable. Conifer sawflies, for instance, are found in coniferous trees, such as pine and spruce. However, the larvae may chew larger holes than the rose slug.   Despite their common name, the larvae of roseslug sawflies resemble tiny caterpillars and look nothing like the glistening, elongated pear-shaped "slug sawflies" which do resemble tiny slugs.  As their common name indicates, bristly roseslug sawfly larvae are covered with short, hair-like bristles that can be best seen with a hand-lens. When I started working for Extension back when growing roses meant hybrid teas, the dominant roseslug sawfly (order Hymenoptera, family Tenthredinidae) was, The roseslug only has one generation per season, so we didn’t worry too much about this sawfly.  The early-season leaf damage was quickly covered over by new leaves as the season progressed.  We would occasionally see the Curled Rose Sawfly (, However, in recent years, these relatively innocuous sawflies have been largely supplanted in Ohio by the more damaging Bristly Roseslug Sawfly (, Although roseslug larvae look like caterpillars, products based on strains of the bacterium, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. The larvae grow up to ¾ inches in length. Adults emerge from underground cocoons when the oak leaves mature in late spring. Bristly Rose Slug. A week later they were a bit larger (they max out at about ½”), and they had developed startling black “eye-spots” on their heads (the wide end) which made them look like Snoopy’s “Joe Cool” character wearing shades. … instructing us on how to be skeletonizers, and she offers them to BugFans for what they’re worth. There are several sawfly species that feed on roses. Male, 6mm bl. Metamorphosis is complete: egg, larva, pupa, adult (Borror, Triplehorn and Johnson, 1989). These insects are either resistant to the chemical substances, or they avoid areas of the plant that have high concentrations of chemicals. They go through several generations a year. The bristly roseslug sawfly is considered a European native that was accidentally introduced into North America. Lots of chemicals are thrown at defoliators, but that pesticide load can adversely affect both non-target species and larva-eating predators. These insects are sawflies, and there are at least two species that attack roses during this time of year: the rose slug (Endelomyia aethiops) and bristly rose slug (Cladius difformis). Rose slugs are the immature or larval stage of sawflies, which are black to yellow colored wasps. [45] The internal green line from stem to stern is plant material going through their gut. Later instars feed between the main veins to directly produce holes in leaves.  Heavy feeding damage by early and late instars may combine to produce "see-through" leaves.  We have commonly observed this type of damage from bristly roseslugs over the past few years in southwest Ohio. Google “leaf skeletonizer” and you’ll get tons of hits about the behavior and control of specific skeletonizers like grape leaf, palm leaf, oak leaf, eucalyptus, etc, skeletonizers, many of whom are considered agricultural and forest pests. However, the introduction probably occurred decades ago because it … Although roseslug larvae look like caterpillars, products based on strains of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are specific to controlling moth caterpillars (order Lepidoptera) will have no effect on these primitive hymenopteran larvae. Quick facts. Another Willow Sawfly (Nematus calais, here doing a pretty thorough job on a poplar) is green with black speckles and larger yellow spots along the side. Cladius difformis, the bristly rose slug, is a species of common sawfly in the family Tenthredinidae. There are 3 species of Rose Slug that may be your culprit: the European rose slug (Endelomyia aethiops), the Bristly rose slug (Cladius difformis), and the Curled rose sawfly (Allantus cinctus). Can cause damage to roses, raspberries and strawberries. Another Willow Sawfly These are sawflies, and there are at least two species that attack roses this time of year: the rose slug (Endelomyia aethiops) and bristly rose slug (Cladius difformis). Merit) or dinotefuran (e.g. Bristly Rose Slug. When to Spray Roses With Spinosad for Sawfly. Alternate names like “slug sawfly” and “oak slug sawfly” testify to the appearance of the 15 or so species of Caliroa larvae and to the self-generated coat of slime that keeps them from falling off of their perches on the undersides of leaves. Adult sawflies have yellowish-green bodies that reach 1/4 to 3/4 inch in length, while the larvae have 1/2- to 3/4-inch long, yellow-green bodies, yellow to yellowish-orange heads and several caterpillar-like legs. But, some of the artistic creations in the “Stereoviews” section are amazing! After feeding for a month or so, the larvae bail, burrow into the soil, and pupate. Figure 4: Damage on Rose Leaf Caused by Rose Slug. BugFan Mike thinks that the ingredients in the “phantomleaves” site might be a bit hard to come by—chlorate of soda is in the “handle with care” category, and BugFans might have to synthesize the chlorate of lime in their own home laboratories. A third species, the curled roseslug sawfly (Allantus cinctus) generally produces two generations Bristly rose slug sawflies have bristle-like hairs covering the body, and curled rose slug sawflies curl up the body when at rest. Can cause damage to roses, raspberries and strawberries. There is also a less common curled slug, called Allantus cinctus, that haunts the "underworld" like the unshaven types! In early June I found bristly rose slugs feeding on wild and cultivated rose bushes in central California and about the same time I found all three species of roseslugs feeding on wild roses in southern Oregon. Pest description and damage These pests are larvae of small wasps called sawflies. Theoretically, sawfly … Bristly rose slug larvae feed on the leaf undersides and also cause leaves to appear skeletonized (Figure 4). A few more gratuitous sawfly larvae, while we’re at it: The gray-with-yellow-spots Willow Sawfly larvae (Nematus ventralis) start out eating the lower leaf surface but then move on to leaf edges. This is not a caterpillar but is the larva of a sawfly. Defoliator populations are often cyclical/periodic, and plants mount some complex defenses against them. Sawflies in warmer climes may emerge the same summer and produce a second, and even a third generation. Three species commonly appear on rose plants: the rose slug (Endelomyia aethiops), the curled rose slug sawfly (Allantus cinctus) and the bristly rose slug (Cladius difformis). The corresponding epidermis on the opposite leaf surface remains intact and turns white producing a characteristic "windowpane" symptom.  Eventually, the "windowpanes" drop out to produce holes. Roses (Rosa spp.) The (probably) Bristly Rose Slug (Cladius difformis) is found on rose, raspberry, strawberry and some other members of the rose family. Ms. SOS slits the upper leaf surface with her ovipositor and inserts a row of eggs along a large leaf vein. Sawfly larvae differ from larvae in the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) by lacking noticeable body hairs, having a well-developed head, and possessing more than five pairs of abdominal prolegs that lack crochets. Early instar bristly roseslug larvae feed by removing one leaf surface and the mesophyll beneath. Roseslugs are small yellow-green larvae, about 0.25 inch long that skeletonized the upper leaf surface of roses. Some leave holes or notches in the leaves, while others skeletonize the leaves by completely devouring the tissue between the veins. Small infestations of either the rose sawfly or bristly rose slug can be removed by hand and subsequently placed into a container of soapy water. Native to the Palaearctic, probably accidentally introduced in the Nearctic. Cladius difformis . They are velvety, yellow-green in color and up to 1/2 inch long. I'm not sure what changed.  The bristly roseslug sawfly is considered a European native that was accidentally introduced into North America.  However, the introduction probably occurred decades ago because it is now found through the continent.  Of course, one thing that changed during this time was the rise of shrub roses over hybrid teas as the dominant roses in Ohio landscapes.  I don't know of any host preference studies on this slug sawfly; however, there seems to be some preference for the shrub roses. Aug 4, 2017 - Bristly Rose Slug Sawfly - Cladius difformis | SocalFauna.net After eating the lower surface, they chew big holes in the leaf but leave its veins. Bristly Rose Slug in Carroll Co., Maryland (5/23/2018). Q. 5/28/07. They forage conspicuously in the open, suggesting that they are distasteful (except maybe to Mama Wasp, who stopped for a protein shake). Rose slug sawfly or slugworm. Cladius difformis, the bristly rose slug, is a species of common sawfly in the family Tenthredinidae. They live here, but they’re probably not native to North America. Bristly Rose Slug in Carroll Co., Maryland (5/23/2018). Rose slugs are the larvae of sawflies, non-stinging members of the wasp family. After eating the lower surface, they chew big holes in the leaf but leave its veins. The roseslug is a sawfly larva (plant-feeding wasp). © Peter J. Bryant Bristly Roseslug Sawfly. Plants like willows, which are very bitter, make chemicals to deter grazers, but the BugLady found a study that showed that N. calais thrives when it consumes willow. Rose slug sawfly (Endelomyia aethiops) on rose. Although their appearances vary somewhat, they are all primarily a light green color with an orange-ish head, and about 0.5-0.75 inches long at their biggest. Photo by Peter Coffey. All of the little green menaces are actually the larvae of sawflies, which look something like small wasps with see-through wings and no waists. They are about 1/2" long and yellow-green with yellow heads. Adults vary from 3/4 to 2 inches long. They live here, but they’re probably not native to North America. Photo: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org In Maryland, there are three species of rose slug sawflies that cause damage to roses: the bristly rose slug sawfly , the rose slug sawfly , and the curled rose sawfly . Some sawfly larvae are slug-like, appearing slimy, unsegmented and translucent, greenish to black, while others appear wax-covered in some of their developmental stages. Some insects are skeletonizers in their earliest instars (an instar is the feeding stage in between molts); they start out on just one tender leaf layer but may graduate as they grow to all the tissue between the veins, then everything but the big veins, and then whole leaves or leaf edges. Crochets … Laguna Beach, Orange County, CA. Adults of all three species resemble wasps and are about 1/4" long. This particular post has short stiff hairs with green bodies and dark heads. Despite its name, the Scarlet Oak Sawfly (SOS) makes filigree of the leaves of red, black, pin and white oaks alike. Although their appearances vary somewhat, they are all primarily a light green color with an orange-ish head, and about 0.5-0.75 inches long at their biggest. Bristly rose slug (Cladius difformis), adult stage. Includes. The damage done is usually temporary (albeit alarming); healthy trees can sprout new leaves. When I started working for Extension back when growing roses meant hybrid teas, the dominant roseslug sawfly (order Hymenoptera, family Tenthredinidae) was Endelomyia aethiops.  It was so common, the common name approved by the Entomological Society of America (ESA) for this species was simply Roseslug. 6/10/2019 0 Comments This insect has been skeletonizing rose leaves Salina and Manhattan areas. However, the larvae may chew larger holes than the rose slug. You can see a green sawfly slug on a leaf on the lower right hand side of the photo under the bloom. However, in recent years, these relatively innocuous sawflies have been largely supplanted in Ohio by the more damaging Bristly Roseslug Sawfly (Cladius difformis) which has multiple generations per season.  Damage from this sawfly starts in the spring and only ends with the first frost.  The expanding numbers with each new generation may produce heavy defoliation by the end of the season. Close examination of this small (½ inch) bristly rose slug larva will … Back to the drawing board…, While she was searching for information on skeletonizers, the BugLady found several sites …. Sawflies are primitive (non-stinging) members of the wasp family, sometimes called “plant wasps.” Adults of some species look wasp-like; others are described as resembling flies, and their offspring look decidedly like caterpillars (but with more abdonemal prolegs). The roseslug sawfly is one of three common sawflies that attack roses (others are curled and bristly roseslugs). Common name Rose slug sawfly or slugworm This is not a caterpillar but is the larva of a sawfly. The curled roseslug was the most distinctive in that it was always curled like a naked snail and attached to the undersides of the leaves. Conserve, Entrust) are effective against sawfly larva and will also have less impact on bio-control agents.  Chlorantraniliprole (e.g. Damage: Adults are rarely seen and do not sting. Rose stem sawfly (Hartigia trimaculata) larva in a rose stem Sawflies are mostly herbivores , feeding on plants that have a high concentration of chemical defences. Acelepryn) is also effective and presents a low risk to pollinators.  Soil drench applications of systemic insecticides such as imidacloprid (e.g. Close examination of this small (½ inch) larva will reveal very fine, hairlike spines in clusters. Sawflies and their larvae tend to be a popular pest for roses. Photo by Peter Coffey. Leaf veins are tough! The two mainly seen in Iowa are the roseslug and bristly roseslug. This eating style has traditionally been called “skeletonizing,” but Coulson and Witter in Forest Entomology point out that “window feeding” is a better term because the larvae restrict their eating to the undersurface of the leaf, leaving the top surface to dry into a translucent brown tissue that light can penetrate. Problem: Rose Slug (Endelomyia aethiops) and Bristly Rose Slug (Cladius difformis) Host: Roses Description: This insect skeletonizes rose leaves. Bristly Rose Slug. Bristly rose slug larvae feed on the underside of rose leaves and also cause leaves to appear skeletonized. The roseslug sawfly (Endelomyia aethiops) is an insect native to Europe that often causes damage on leaves of wild and cultivated roses in May and June. Sawfly insects are in the order Hymenoptera that includes bees, ants, wasps, parasitic wasps, and sawflies. The bristly rose slug will eat up your leaves and leave them in skeletonized tissue. Skeletonizers are considered defoliators, often lumped with leaf miners, tent-makers, the folders, rollers, webbers and tie-ers of leaves, and generalized gnawers. 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